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Dried Fava and Potato Puree with Dandelion Greens Recipe

Dried Fava and Potato Puree with Dandelion Greens Recipe


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Ingredients

  • 8 ounces dried fava beans (about 1 1/2 cups)
  • 1 1/4 cups coarsely chopped peeled Yukon Gold potato (about 5 ounces)
  • 3/4 cup coarsely chopped white onion
  • 1/2 cup coarsely chopped peeled carrot
  • 3 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil, divided
  • 1 bunch dandelion greens (10 to 11 ounces), bottom 2 inches of stems trimmed and discarded, greens cut crosswise in half
  • 1 garlic clove, peeled, halved
  • Large pinch of dried crushed red pepper
  • Freshly grated Parmesan cheese

Recipe Preparation

  • Place fava beans in medium bowl. Pour enough water over to cover by 2 inches. Cover and let soak at room temperature overnight. Drain fava beans. Peel off outer shell and skin from beans and discard.

  • Place fava beans in large saucepan. Add 8 cups water, potato, onion, and carrot and bring to boil, skimming off any foam that rises to surface with large spoon. Reduce heat to medium; add pinch of salt and simmer uncovered until beans are very soft, stirring occasionally and adding more boiling water as needed to keep beans submerged, about 1 hour 45 minutes. Drain. Transfer bean mixture to processor and puree until almost smooth. Season to taste with salt and pepper. Transfer fava bean puree to bowl.

  • Heat 2 tablespoons oil in large skillet over medium-high heat. Add dandelion greens, garlic, and crushed red pepper; sauté until greens wilt, about 2 minutes. Season to taste with salt and freshly ground black pepper. Place greens atop fava bean puree. Drizzle with remaining 1 tablespoon oil; sprinkle with Parmesan cheese.

Test-Kitchen Tip

  • Keep a pot of boiling water on the stove so you can add boiling water to the beans as needed.

Recipe by Donatella Arpaia,

Nutritional Content

1 serving contains the following: Calories (kcal) 162.1 %Calories from Fat 46.1 Fat (g) 8.3 Saturated Fat (g) 1.5 Cholesterol (mg) 1.7 Carbohydrates (g) 18.3 Dietary Fiber (g) 4.4 Total Sugars (g) 4.1 Net Carbs (g) 13.8 Protein (g) 5.3Reviews Section

Fava Beans with Bitter Greens


1 Place the beans and potato in a large pot. Add cold water to cover by 1/2 inch. Bring to a simmer and cook until the beans are very soft and falling apart and all the water is absorbed.

2 Add salt to taste. Mash the beans with the back of a spoon or a potato masher. Stir in the oil.

3 Bring a large pot of water to a boil. Add the greens and salt to taste. Cook until tender, depending on the variety of greens, 5 to 10 minutes. Drain well.

4 Dry the pot. Add the oil, garlic, and crushed red pepper. Cook over medium heat until the garlic is golden, about 2 minutes. Add the drained greens and salt to taste. Toss well.

5 Spread the bean puree on a serving platter. Pile the greens on top. Drizzle with more oil if desired. Serve hot or warm.

From "1,000 Italian Recipes." Copyright 2004 by Michele Scicolone. Used with permission of the publisher, Wiley Publishing, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Nutritional Facts:

This Fava Beans with Bitter Greens recipe is from the Cook'n in Italy Cookbook. Download this Cookbook today.


Tantré Farm Recipes

Preheat oven to 400 degrees F. Cover bottom of natural finish skillet with heat-resistant handle (cast iron works best) with the oil. Cut potatoes into quarters, add to skillet and toss to coat with oil. Position skillet on middle rack of oven. Roast potatoes for 20 minutes. Turn off oven heat. Stir potatoes and keep them in oven another 10 minutes. Stir potatoes one last time, then transfer to a serving bowl, tossing the rosemary and salt mixture over them. Serves 4.

BLUE POTATOES MASHED WITH ROASTED GARLIC

3 pounds (about 6 cups) blue potatoes
2 1/2 ounces (about 2 to 4 cloves, depending on size) roasted garlic
1/4 cup sour cream
1 Tbsp. butter
2 Tbsp. Parmesan, grated
Salt and pepper

Peel and cut the potatoes into cubes. Boil them in salted water for approximately 15 minutes or fork tender. Once potatoes have cooked, drain the water.
In a large bowl add the garlic, sour cream, butter, and Parmesan to the potatoes, and mash until desired consistency. Add salt and pepper to taste.

RED, WHITE & BLUE POTATO SALAD RECIPE

1/2 pound baby red rose potatoes (new potatoes)
1/2 pound baby white rose potatoes
1/2 pound small blue (or purple) potatoes
1/4 cup mayonnaise
1/8 cup ranch dressing
1/2 Tablespoon champagne vinegar (or white vinegar)
1/4 teaspoon dried dill weed
Pinch of sugar (optional)
1/4 cup thin-sliced green onions(scallions),tops included
Salt and freshly ground black pepper to taste
Grape tomatoes for garnish

Simmer red, white, and blue potatoes, skins on, in salted water until tender, but not mushy. Let cool until easy enough to handle, but still warm. Cut into 1-inch pieces. Combine mayonnaise, ranch dressing, champagne vinegar, dill weed, and optional sugar. Pour over warm potatoes and toss to coat. Season with salt and pepper to taste. Refrigerate 2 hours or more to let flavors meld. Let come to room temperature to serve. Garnish with grape tomatoes. Recipe may be easily doubled.

*Notes: Waxy potatoes such as red rose, white rose, blue, purple, and gold potatoes are best for potato salad because they are not grainy or mealy and hold together well. You may substitute chopped chives for the green onions. Makes 6 servings.

CELERIAC POTATO GREEN CHILI SOUP

1 large onion, sliced
2 Tbsp. butter or vegetable oil
1 medium bulb celeriac, peeled and sliced 1/4-inch thick
1 1/2 tsp. chopped fresh thyme
3 large potatoes, peeled and sliced 1/4-inch thick
4 1/2 cups whole milk
1/2 cup roasted, peeled, seeded, and chopped Poblano peppers
2 tsp. salt
1/2 tsp. black pepper
2 tsp. sugar
1 Tbsp. rice wine vinegar

Sauté onions in butter or oil until completely cooked, about 15 minutes. Add celeriac and thyme cook stirring frequently, 5 to 10 minutes. Add potatoes, milk, and peppers, simmer until potatoes and celeriac are cooked through. Blend smooth in food processor. Season with salt, pepper, sugar, and rice wine vinegar. Serves 4.

(from Asparagus to Zucchini: A Guide to Farm-Fresh, Season Produce, MACSAC)

CELERIAC AND SWEET POTATO SOUP

2 Tbsp. butter or vegetable oil
1 large leek, washed thoroughly & sliced thin (or 1 large onion, chopped)
1 large or 2 medium celeriac, peeled & cut into 1-inch cubes
1 1/2 lbs. sweet potatoes, peeled and cut into 1-inch cubes
1 1/2 tsp. salt
1/2 tsp. ground allspice or nutmeg
4 cups water or unsalted vegetable broth
1 cup apple cider
1 cup light cream or milk (optional)
Salt and pepper to taste
1/4 cup toasted pecans or almonds, chopped coarsely

Heat the butter or oil in large pan over medium-low heat. Sauté the onions, stirring occasionally for about 10 minutes, or until lightly browned. Add the celeriac, sweet potatoes, and salt. Cover and cook, tossing a few times, for about 10 minutes. Add the allspice or nutmeg and stir for another minute. Pour in water and apple cider. Increase heat and simmer for about 30 or 40 minutes, until very tender. Cool to lukewarm, & purée in a blender or food processor and return to the pot (or use a stick blender to purée the soup in the pot.) Stir in the cream or milk. Salt and pepper to taste. Serve warm and add nuts. Serves 6.

(from The Genesis Farm Cookbook)

GREEN TOMATO CHUTNEY

1 lb. green tomatoes, chopped
1/2 lb. onions, chopped
1/2 lb. honey
1/2 lb. raisins
1 pint cider vinegar
1 Tbsp. sea salt

Simmer all together until thickish. Bottle hot in sterilized jars.

(from "Simple Food for the Good Life" by Helen Nearing)

FIRST-FROST FRIED GREEN TOMATOES

1 lg. green tomato per person
eggs & milk (2Tbs. milk per egg)
oil for frying
breading (cornmeal, bread crumbs or flour)
salt and pepper or other seasonings (See recipe.)
Parmesan cheese
Slice tomatoes 1/2 inch thick. Combine milk and eggs in one bowl and breading and seasonings in another. (Alternate seasonings include: basil, oregano, curry powder, sesame seed, or chili powder.) Dip tomato slices first into egg mixture, then into breading/seasoning mixture, and fry until golden brown on both sides.


How to Make Dried Bean Soup With No Recipe

Dried bean soups are hearty and perfect for chilly days. Black beans, navy beans, kidney beans, lima beans may be used. For a velvety, smooth soup, purée or whir the beans in a blender after cooking for a soup with texture, purée only half the beans.

Water is the common liquid ingredient for dried bean soups, but for savor use white stock made with veal (from pasture-raised calves) or the liquid from water-cooked meats such as ham hocks or tongue.

Dried beans slow cooked with aromatic vegetables and herbs, spices, or seeds will literally soak up those flavors. Chunks of beef, pork, or lamb can be added to cooking dried beans, too, to make the soup extra savory.

Ratio: The basic ratio for dried bean soups is 2 part dried beans (or any dried vegetable) to 3 to 4 parts liquid. For example, 2 cups of dried beans (about 1 pound) added to 4 cups cold water or white stock.

For flavor and savor after the preliminary cooking of the dried beans, add 1 part sautéed aromatic vegetables—carrots, celery, and onions, 1 to 2 parts meat cut into cubes, and season with salt and herbs to taste.

Ratio cooked: 1 pound dried beans = 2 cups dried beans = 6 cups cooked beans. This will make about 10 servings.

Dried Beans for Soups:

Use white stock with dried beans for the best flavor.

  • Black/turtle: large black beans with light creamy interior sweet flavor.
  • Cannellini/Italian kidney: medium-size white, kidney-shaped beans nutty flavor.
  • Cranberry: small, round beans with maroon markings nutty flavor.
  • Fava/broad bean: large, flat, oval tan bean.
  • Garbanzo/chickpeas: medium, acorn-shaped bean nutty flavor.
  • Great Northern: large, slightly round white bean delicate flavor.
  • Kidney: medium-sized, kidney-shaped, pink to maroon beans full-bodied flavor.
  • Lima/butter: medium, slightly kidney-shaped, white to pale green bean buttery flavor.
  • Navy/Yankee: small, round, white bean.
  • Pinto/red Mexican: medium, kidney-shaped, beige to brown streaked bean.
  • Heirloom varieties (Calypso, Tongues of Fire, Jacob’s Cattle, Madeira): a broad range in size and color, some with stripes, some with speckles.

Preliminary Soaking of Beans:

Dried beans are dry and hard so they must be rehydrated—that is they must absorb water—to be made edible. Soak dried beans in liquid overnight (long soak) or use the short soak method before cooking dried beans.

Follow these steps to prepare dried beans for cooking:

  • Spread out the dried beans on a tray or in a wide pot and remove any shell fragments, small stones, or other foreign particles then rinse well.
  • Place the dried beans in a large pot and cover them with 3 times their volume in cold water to soak and rehydrate. Make sure no beans poke above the surface. Dried beans must evenly soak or they will not cook at the same rate.
  • Add two or three pinches of salt to the liquid. Salt will slow the rate at which beans absorb water and become soft, but beans pre-soaked in salted water will cook faster and be more flavorful.

Long soak method: Let the beans soak in the refrigerator for 4 hours to overnight.

Short soak method: Cover the beans with 2 inches of water bring the water to a simmer for two minutes remove the pot from direct heat and cover let the beans steep for 1 hour.

Drain after soaking and use fresh cold water for cooking.

Soaking dried beans leaches indigestible complex sugars that cause flatulence from the beans into the water, and soaking also leaches some nutrients, flavor, and color from beans. When soaking water is used as cooking water, nutrients, flavor and color are retained but so are the sugars that cause flatulence.

Making Dried Bean Soup:

Add stock or water to beans. Place the pre-soaked beans in wide, heavy nonreactive pot, a pot wide enough that the beans will be easy to stir. Add enough white stock or water or cooking liquid to cover the beans by at least 2 inches. Make sure the liquid covers the beans throughout the cooking time.

Boil then simmer. Bring the beans and liquid to a boil and then immediately reduce the heat to a simmer. Cook the beans at a simmer. Boiling beans usually results in uneven coking—some beans will disintegrate in the turbulence of boiling water and the seed coat of others will stay tough and never become tender.

Simmer the beans until they become evenly tender stirring occasionally to prevent beans from settling on the bottom and scorching. Simmering time will depend upon the amount of beans—simmering a large pot of beans will take 2 to 3 hours.

Check the level of cooking liquid and add more as necessary to keep the beans covered. To preserve the color of black and red beans minimize the amount of cooking liquid which draw pigments out of the seed coats but keep the beans covered. Skim off any foam or impurities that rise to the top of the cooking liquid.

Cook until beans are tender. Check the texture of the beans for doneness as you go. A bean well-cooked is soft and creamy in texture but still retains its shape it is not hard or grainy. A well-cooked bean should be soft and easy to mash with a fork or spoon.

When the beans are cooked tender, turn off the heat and allow the beans to cool in their liquid. If you drain the liquid away from hot beans their skins will crack

Adding Flavor to Beans:

Beans develop flavor as they cook, but the flavor is subtle. You can boost the flavor of cooked beans by adding aromatic root vegetables, herbs and spices, or meat to the pot near the end of cooking—the last 10 to 30 minutes. The flavor of the vegetables, herbs, and meat is infused in the water and in turn drawn into the bean.

(As a bean cooks liquid seeps into the bean through its hilum—the tiny white spot on its side where it was once connected to the pod. Starch granules inside the bean swell with the liquid warm water enters the bean more quickly than cool water. Finally, the granules burst altering the texture and flavor of the bean beans become less starchy and gain a rounder flavor and smoother texture. When vegetables, herbs, or meat are cooked in liquid with beans their soluble flavor compounds dissolve in the liquid. The liquid enters the swelling bean and flavors it. A bean that has fully swollen and can no longer absorb liquid cannot absorb any flavored liquid. Thus to add flavor to beans, you must add aromatic vegetables, herbs, or meat to the liquid before the beans are fully cooked.)

Here are several flavoring options to add near the end of cooking dried beans:

  • Sauté separately diced aromatic vegetables—onions, celery, carrots, leeks, celery root, parsnip, garlic–in olive oil until just soft then stir them into the bean pot with about 10 minutes left to cook then let the mix sit for a few minutes to allow the flavors to meld.
  • At the end of cooking, stir in salt and pepper to taste, add bouquet garni–a few thyme sprigs, parsley stems, and two bay leaves tied in kitchen twine–to soak.
  • Add a ham hock or prosciutto bone to cook with the beans slowly (add these sooner rather than later in the cooking process for a deep meaty flavor you can even add these at the outset of cooking). Diced bacon or ham steak added to the liquid will also deliver flavor to the beans as will chunks of beef, pork, or lamb.
  • Add near the end of cooking peeled and seeded tomatoes and pasta pre-boiled for 7 to 8 minutes in lightly salted water and rinsed.

Allow at least 10 minutes of cooking beans with flavorings for the flavors to infuse.

How to Thicken Bean Soup:

When the beans have softened throughout, the soup is ready to serve as it, but you can also thicken the soup by transferring a cup or two or more of the beans and broth to a blender and purée thoroughly. Then return the purée to the cooking pot.

The soup also can be thickened by removing half of the beans to a bowl where they can be mashed by hand with a fork or potato masher then returned to the broth, or some of the beans can be mashed right in the soup pot.

The creamy liquid of a hand or blender purée will nicely suspended a mixture of whole and broken beans in the soup. For a smooth soup puree or whir all the beans in a blender after cooking for a soup with texture, puree only half of the beans.

Acid, sugar, and calcium will slow the softening of beans and keep them firm during cooking. Tomatoes, wine, fruit juices, and vinegar are acidic. Molasses—as used in Boston baked beans–contains sugar and calcium. These can be added to the cooking beans near the end of cooking.

Serving Bean Soup:

To serve, remove the herbs, heat the soup thoroughly, and it dish up into warm bowls.

Sprinkle Parmesan cheese and a dash of extra virgin oil over each portion at the table or add a tablespoon of dry wine to each cup or bowl. Bean soup also can also be enriched with a dollop of cream or enlivened with a squeeze of fresh lemon juice and a parsley leaf or two.


ZITI WITH FAVA BEANS AND DANDELION GREENS

8 oz. dried fava beans, (soaked overnight), drained
6 large clove garlic, finely chopped
1/4 cup extra virgin olive oil
2 Tbs. coarsely chopped flat-leaf parsley
1 large leek, (white & 3″ of green), coarsely chopped
1 lb. dandelion greens, (washed well), chopped into 2″ pieces
3 medium ripe tomatoes, (include juice), chopped
½ tsp. crushed red pepper
½ tsp. dried oregano
Salt and pepper to taste
8 oz. ziti pasta

Put soaked fava beans and 6 cups water in a large pot. Cover and bring to a boil over high heat. Stir in half of the chopped garlic, 2 tablespoons olive oil, and parsley. Lower heat to medium, cover, and cook at a medium boil, stirring occasionally, for about 1-1/2 hours, or until beans are tender. Meanwhile, in a large skillet, heat remaining 2 tablespoons olive oil over medium-high heat. Add remaining garlic, leeks, dandelions, and tomatoes with their juices. Cover skillet and cook for about 45 minutes, stirring occasionally, until sauce has thickened. Sprinkle with crushed red pepper, oregano, salt, and pepper. Stir well to mix. Lower heat and keep warm while beans continue to cook until tender. Cook ziti according to package directions. Drain and add pasta to cooked dandelion greens. Cover and keep warm. When beans are done, mash them lightly with a potato masher. Add the dandelion/ziti mixture to pot of beans and stir well to combine. Cook for 10 minutes, stirring occasionally. Taste for seasonings. Serves 4


How to Make Purée Vegetable Soup with No Recipe

Purée aromatic and sweet vegetables in a blender for a velvety soup or purée them by hand in the pot for a slightly chunky soup. Carrot soup, leek and potato soup, cauliflower soup, broccoli soup, winter squash soup: root vegetables and substantive bodied or flowered vegetables make thick, flavorful purée soups.

Potatoes, carrots, turnips, rutabagas, and also winter squash, broccoli, and cauliflower are flavorful and substantial enough to thicken a soup once puréed, no starch thickener is needed. Corn, peas, fava beans, asparagus, and cabbage puréed also can thicken a soup.

Puréed soft, moist vegetables–mushrooms, green peppers, spinach, zucchini, celery, and onions—will make a light, gentle soup.

Use vegetables fresh from the garden or leftovers from the refrigerator to create tasty puréed soups. You won’t need a recipe once you understand the ratio and method:

How to Make Purée Vegetable Soup Without a Recipe

Ratio and Preparation Notes. The ratio of liquid to solid for a puréed vegetable soup is from 4 to 1 to about 3:1 to make a creamy purée soup, 1 part of the liquid should be cream or milk to thicken and flavor to make a thick vegetable purée that you might serve as a side dish use a liquid to solid ratio of 2:1. One pound of vegetables equals about 2¼ cups.

Allow 1 to 2 cups finished soup per serving. Seasoning is to taste and a topping or garnish is optional. Allow an hour or longer to prepare and cook.

Step One. Establish the flavor base for the soup by heating a couple of tablespoons of olive oil or melting butter in a heavy bottomed pot (to disperse the heat evenly) on medium-low heat. Add a large leek or a small onion trimmed and split in half and evenly chopped or add a few smashed garlic cloves (or both). Sweat just coated with oil or butter until tender over medium-low heat until fragrant and soft but not brown, 5 to 15 minutes depending upon the amount. Add a tied bouquet of herbs to the pot and cook for 2 to 3 minutes longer: herbs can include 3 or 4 sprigs of thyme, 2 medium bay leaves, 4 or 5 sprigs of flat-leaf parsley—vary the herbs to taste or omit them, but keep it simple so as not to confuse flavor. To this you can (but need not, according to the flavor you seek) add white wine—about a cup or a bit more—and cook on until reduced to just a couple of tablespoons. This step infuses the fat–the butter or oil–with the flavor and aroma of the onion or leeks and herbs the fat will, in turn, disperse the flavor throughout the soup.

Step Two. Add chicken stock or water (use water for a lighter, vegetarian soup) and raise the heat and bring to a boil stirring occasionally. For faster cooking, heat the stock in advance, as you prepare the flavor base in Step One. Add one or two vegetables trimmed and coarsely chopped or medium diced and bring to a boil then reduce heat to a simmer. (For example, add just cauliflower cut into bite-size florets or add both broccoli and cauliflower. Your vegetable or vegetable combinations can vary each by the season you prepare this soup: just carrots, just winter squash, just corn—a single vegetable, or combinations turnips and rutabagas or leeks and potatoes—many variations.) Simmer—keeping the solids covered with stock or water–until the vegetables are tender and just fall apart when prodded with a fork, about 20 to 30 minutes, the larger the pieces of vegetable the longer the cooking time. Smaller pieces, such as corn, may be ready in 5 minutes. The vegetables must cook through to give their flavor to the stock. For the deepest flavor, sauté vegetables lightly before adding them to the stock add long cooking vegetables fist, short cooking vegetables near the end.

Step Three. Remove the stock and vegetables from heat. Remove the herbs. Purée the just tender vegetable along with the cooking liquid. Purée in a blender (in small batches), or in the work bowl of a food processor, or with an immersion blender directly in the pot, or for a coarse purée stir vigorously in the pot with a spoon or whisk. (If you use a blender to purée hot soup, be sure the lid is secure and there is an air vent to allow steam to escape.) To make a thick, rich and creamy soup add a cup (more or less) of cream or whole milk or half-and-half or skim milk before blending—as thick or thin as you like. (The richer the liquid, the more satiny the soup.) To make a velvety, even purée pass the mix through a fine strainer after blending. (If you did not use herbs earlier, you can drop a few spring of fresh parsley or other soft herbs into the blender before puréeing.)

Step Four. Return soup to the pot or saucepan and bring to a simmer—a few disperse bubbles, thinning with additional stock or water if the soup seems too thick, and season to taste with salt and fresh ground black pepper if you like.

Serve. Serve the soup hot or cool to room temperature before serving or refrigerate and serve chilled.

A garnish should enliven not complicate, detract, or over power the flavor of the soup. If you garnish, use a dollop or a swirl of cream or lump of clarified butter or olive oil spooned over the soup or a squeeze of lemon. You can also garnish with fresh herbs, thinly sliced vegetables, grated cheese, croutons, or bread crumbs.

Serve as a meal with a salad and crusty bread or crackers or alone as a first course.


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Artichokes

The heart and inner leaves of artichokes are wonderfully tender once you peel away the dark outer leaves. Even the smallest artichokes have an armor of tough outer leaves to protect the nutty, sweet treasure inside. Include the stems if you like you’ll need to peel them before slicing. The stems can be sweet, like the hearts, but they’re also sometimes bitter. Be sure to use a non-reactive knife to keep the cut surfaces from turning dark.

Artichokes will discolor if prepared ahead of time, unless you cover them with lemon water. To make lemon water, add the juice of 1 lemon to 2 to 3 cups water in a medium-size bowl. You can also add a few cut wedges of the squeezed lemon to the water if you like.

Trim off the tops and stem ends of the artichokes. Peel away the outer leaves, down to the tender light green inner leaves. Cut the artichokes into quarters and trim away the choke. Cut the quarters into 3 or 4 slices (or as directed in the recipe) and immediately place in the lemon water. They’ll even keep overnight in the refrigerator this way, just be sure to cover the bowl. When you’re ready to use the artichokes, drain them, then proceed with the recipe. (taken from Fields of Greens by Annie Somerville)

Arugula

Arugula belongs to the mustard family, but its flavor resembles the mildly spicy watercress more than the stronger, more bitter mustard or turnip greens. It looks like a cross between dandelion greens and oak leaf lettuce. Native to the Mediterranean region, arugula is also called roquette, rugula, rucola, rocket salad, and Mediterranean rocket. It started out as a peasant food in countries such as Italy, where it is picked wild.

Arugula is one of the most nutritious of the salad greens. It tops lettuce, chicory, romaine, and watercress in beta-carotene, vitamin C, and calcium. A cruciferous, cancer-fighting vegetable as well, arugula contains more calcium than kale and collards, two greens noted for their high calcium content.

This nutritious green has versatility beyond the salad bowl and is easy to introduce into your meals. After the tender leaves are washed and separated from the stems, they can be torn or cut and are ready for use. Arugula makes a great substitute for lettuce in sandwiches , adding a nice sharp and nutty dimension. Try it with grilled vegetable, turkey, cheese, or any other sandwich.

Arugula can also be used as a fresh herb (which is sometimes how is it classed.) It can be added to pastas, soups, and vegetable and grain dishes like potato salad, tabouli, coleslaw, and carrot salad. It can also be made into a pesto. This leafy green combines well with citrus fruits, berries, avocado, and mild lettuces like butterhead and Bibb. It is delicious when served with dressings made with balsamic vinegar or citrus.

Storage: Arugula is highly perishable, and is best used immediately. It should be stored in a plastic bag in the refrigerator. You can also wrap a wet paper towel around the roots and place them in a plastic bag not tightly closed. Do not store greens in the same drawer as fruits because fruits release ethylene gas, which triggers deterioration in vegetables.

Asparagus

Beets (and their greens)

Beet greens are easy to prepare and quick cooking, as well as being nutritious. The edible and delicious tops are better sources of vitamins and minerals than the beets themselves, with more vitamin C, calcium, and iron. But despite these attributes, some people still discard them.

Beet greens have a beautiful dark wine-green color and a wonderfully complex flavor that is earthy yet mild with overtones of the sweet beetroot. Generally speaking, if you like fresh, sweet beets you’ll enjoy the edible beet leaves. Even if you don’t like beets but enjoy spinach or chard, you might want to give beet greens a try. All three are mild and non-bitter cooking greens of the goosefoot (Chenopodium) family. Beet greens offer a slightly more robust flavor and a denser leaf than either spinach of chard, but cook down just as tenderly and delicately.

Cooking beet greens is easily and best accomplished by wilting them in a skillet with a little water. In a classic and delicious preparation, the beet greens are sautéed in olive oil (1 tablespoon or less does the trick) with several cloves of minced garlic, then covered and cooked for 8 to 10 minutes. Add a squeeze of lemon juice just before serving. Besides just a little oil, add a few tablespoons of water to prevent sticking. Beet greens can also be steamed and dressed up afterward.

Some flavors that complement the beetroot also highlight the greens: dill, lemon, apples, balsamic vinegar, oranges, and orange juice. Other seasonings to use include cinnamon, nutmeg, cloves, and ginger. Different cheeses also balance the deep taste of the greens.

Storage: Separate greens from beets, and store in the refrigerator (together or separate) in a plastic bag not tightly closed. Beet greens are more perishable than fresh beets and keep only for 3 to 4 days.

Fava Beans

Fava beans are one of the oldest domesticated food legumes. References to favas occur in both the Talmud and the Mishna, indicating they have been part of the Middle Eastern diet since at least since the 4th century.

The term "fava bean" (from the Italian fava, meaning "broad bean") is used in some English-speaking countries such as the US, but "broad bean" is the most common name in the UK and Australia and New Zealand.

Beans are a great source of fiber, protein, iron, B vitamins, potassium, magnesium and many other beneficial nutrients. Favas have a mild, creamy flavor that compliments many spring dishes. Fresh favas are a bit time consuming, as they need to be shelled, cooked, then peeled. Well worth the effort though.

The beans can be fried, causing the skin to split open, and then salted and/or spiced to produce a savory, crunchy snack. These are popular in China, Malaysia, Colombia, Peru (habas saladas), Guatemala (habas), Mexico (habas con chile), Gilan (North of Iran) and Thailand (where their name means "open-mouth nut").

In some Arab countries, the fava bean is used for a breakfast dish called ful mudammas.

Fava beans are common in Latin American cuisines, as well. In central Mexico, mashed fava beans are a common filling for many corn flour-based antojito snacks such as tlacoyos. In Colombia, they are most often used whole in vegetable soups. Dried and salted fava beans are a popular snack in many Latin countries.

Broad beans are widely cultivated in the Kech and Panjgur districts of Balochistan Province in Pakistan, and in the eastern province of Iran. They are called bakalaink in the Balochi language, and baghalee in Persian


Recipe: Josiah Citrin’s Halibut with Smoked Bacon – Fava Bean Emulsion

Today on Good Food, Laura Avery interviews Josiah Citrin, chef and owner of Melisse in Santa Monica, about his new cookbook In Pursuit of Excellence. This recipe for Halibut with Smoked Bacon – Fava Bean Emulsion is in the book. Josiah says that while executing the entire dish is time consuming, you can pick out techniques or sauces from the book that you enjoy and choose to just make those rather than completing the entire dish. Keep reading for the complete recipe…

Alaskan Halibut

Tomato Confit, Niçoise Olives, Smoked Bacon-Fava Bean Emulsion

6 -3 ½ ounce pieces of halibut filet, cut into 2 ¼ x 2 ¼ x 1 inch squares
1 tablespoon sea salt

Smoked Bacon-Fava Emulsion
3 slices apple smoked bacon
2 cloves sliced Triple Blanched Garlic (page #)
1 tablespoon sliced shallot
1 ½ cups Chicken Stock (page #)
3 branches savory
2 tablespoons heavy cream
1 cup fresh double-peeled fava beans, young and tender (about 2 ½ pounds whole favas in their pods)
1 tablespoon unsalted butter
Sea salt and freshly ground white pepper to taste

Fava Bean Ragout
1 small Yukon gold potato, peeled and cut into small dice
3 tablespoons Vegetable Stock (see below)
¼ cup fresh double-peeled young and tender fava beans (about ¾ pound)
1 teaspoon grated lemon zest
1 tablespoon salted butter, cut into small dice
3 Tomato Confit, cut into small dice (see below)
1 tablespoon Niçoise olives, cut into brunoise
1 teaspoon savory leaves, picked
Sea salt and freshly cracked white pepper to taste

To Finish
2 quarts Vegetable Stock
1 tablespoon xanthan gum
Sea Salt to taste

Garnish
6 small mizuna leaves
6 small red dandelion greens
6 verbena hybrid flowers
Fleur de sel and Espelette pepper to taste

Halibut
Sprinkle the halibut with 1 tablespoon sea salt and let sit in the refrigerator for 45 minutes. Rinse and dry well, put on a plate and refrigerate, unwrapped, for at least 45 minutes. This process will season the fish and remove water making the fish more dense and less likely to flake during cooking.

Smoked Bacon-Fava Bean Emulsion
Heat a saucepan over medium heat. Add the smoked bacon and render for 2 minutes. Add the garlic and shallots and sweat for 1 minute. Add the Chicken Stock and savory and bring to a boil, reduce to a simmer and cook for 5 minutes. Add the cream and return to a boil. Strain through a chinois into a saucepan and bring back to a boil. Add the fava beans and cook at a simmer for 5 minutes. Transfer to a blender and puree until smooth then season to taste with sea salt and freshly ground white pepper. Strain through a chinois back into the saucepan. Keep warm. If preparing in advance, strain into a stainless steel bowl then set that bowl over a bowl of ice and stir to chill. Cover and refrigerate.

Fava Bean Ragout
Put the diced potato in a pot with 1 quart of cold water and 1 tablespoon of sea salt. Bring to a light simmer and reduce heat so it is just barely simmering. Cook for 5 minutes or until cooked through but potatoes hold their form. Strain and set aside.

Put the Vegetable Stock in a small sauté pan with the fava beans. Bring to a boil and cook for 1 minute, stirring often. Add the potatoes and cook for another 30 seconds. Add the lemon zest and slowly mix in the butter until it emulsifies with the Vegetable Stock. Add the diced Tomato Confit, Niçoise olives and the savory. Gently mix to combine well and cook for 30 more seconds, or until the butter nicely coats the Fava Bean Ragout. Season the fava beans with freshly cracked white pepper and sea salt if needed. Keep warm.

To Finish
Put the Vegetable Stock in a large rondeau that can hold the 6 pieces of halibut without crowding. Bring the stock to a boil. Add the xanthan gum and blend with an immersion blender to combine well. Season with sea salt. Bring to a boil, add the halibut and reduce the heat to a low simmer. Let the fish cook for 7 minutes. Gently remove and transfer to a tray, wiping off any remaining poaching liquid. Season with fleur de sel and Espelette pepper.

To Serve
Reheat the Fava Bean Ragout. Reheat the sauce, add the 1 tablespoon butter and blend with an immersion blender until frothy. Spoon 2 tablespoons of sauce into six heated shallow soup bowls. Place the halibut in the center and cover with the Fava Bean Ragout. Garnish with the mizuna, dandelion and verbena flowers.

1 cup fresh peeled garlic

As the liquid comes to a simmer, be sure to give it one last good skimming to remove all visible impurities that are at the surface. It is easier to skim before adding the vegetables. Add the vegetables, bouquet garni and black peppercorns and bring the liquid back to a simmer, skimming often. Simmer for 1 ½ hours, skimming frequently. Turn off the heat and let the stock rest to allow any particles to sink to the bottom.

Ladle the stock through a chinois into a container large enough to hold 8 quarts. You can use a small saucepan as a ladle if you do not have a large enough ladle. Discard the stock in the bottom of the pot and do not be tempted to pour the stock through the chinois, as that will only cloud the stock. Chill the stock in a container in a sink filled with ice water.

I like to make a light chicken stock because we use it in a lot of different applications and do not want a strong chicken flavor instead, we want a subtle aroma. If you would like a stronger flavor, just reduce slowly, skimming away any impurities that rise to the surface.

Once you achieve your desired chicken flavor, chill in a container in a sink filled with ice water. Stir until the stock is cold. Store in the refrigerator overnight the next day, remove the fat that has coagulated on the surface. This stock can be saved for up to 4 days in the refrigerator. You can freeze it in several ½ cup containers.

To prepare a double stock, combine your chilled stock with 2 whole chickens rinsed under water and repeat the process above. This stock has a rich silky flavor and is used at Mélisse to make rich broths.

Vegetable Stock
Yields 3 ½ quarts

1 cup chardonnay
1 tablespoon Unsalted Butter
1 clove garlic, peeled
4 large brown onions, peeled and cut into large dice
2 large carrots, peeled and cut into large dice
½ bunch celery, stalks only, cut into large dice
2 large leeks, white parts only, thoroughly cleaned and cut into large dice
1 fennel bulb, thinly sliced
1 teaspoon fennel seeds
1 teaspoon coriander seeds
1 teaspoon sea salt
2 ½ quarts water
3 sprigs thyme
3 sprigs thyme
1 Bay leaf
1 Orange, cut in half

Put the white wine in a heavy saucepan and bring it to a boil, reduce to a simmer and then reduce by half.

Place the butter and garlic in a large pot with at least an 8-quart capacity. Put the pot over medium heat and roast the garlic until lightly golden. Add the onions, carrots, celery, leeks, fennel, fennel seeds and coriander seeds. Season with the sea salt and sweat for about 8 minutes, stirring constantly with a wooden spoon. Add the water, thyme and bay leaf, bring to a boil, reduce to a simmer and cook for 20 minutes. Add the orange and reduced white wine and bring to a boil. Reduce the heat to a low simmer and cook for 20 more minutes more. Strain the stock through a chinois into a stainless steel bowl that is set over a bowl of ice and stir to chill. Cover and refrigerate.

This can be stored for up to 4 days in the refrigerator or split into ½ cup portions and stored in the freezer. If freezing, freeze immediately once it has been chilled.

Tomato Confit
10 Roma tomatoes
Extra virgin olive oil
Sea salt
Freshly ground black pepper
Thyme sprigs

This yields 20 Confit Tomatoes

Tomato Confit
Cut and remove cores from the tomatoes and slash an “X” into the bottom of each. Add the tomatoes to a pot of salted boiling water for 20 seconds to loosen the skin (the skin on riper tomatoes will loosen more quickly). Immediately remove the tomatoes and transfer to an ice water bath to cool. Peel the loosened skins from the tomatoes and cut into halves. Remove the seeds.

Preheat the oven to 225 degrees. Line a baking sheet with aluminum foil. Drizzle the foil with olive oil and lightly sprinkle with sea salt and freshly ground black pepper. Lay the tomato halves on the foil with the inside down. Drizzle more olive oil over the tomatoes and sprinkle with sea salt. Scatter thyme sprigs over the tomatoes.

Place in the oven for about 6 hours, until they are three quarters dried, but still have a little juice left. Remove the thyme. Let the tomatoes cool. Once they are cool, line them in a container with a tight-fitting lid. Cover with extra virgin olive oil. This can be made ahead of time and kept for one week. When using, always remove excess oil with a paper towel so the tomatoes are not oily.


My Chop "Recipe"

(Chop, for those who don't know, is simply a name for "salad" or "mash" as some call it. It usually consists of veggies, fruits, legumes, and grains, or some combination of those. It's a way to give our feathered friends a tasty, healthy variety of good things to supplement their diet. For my crew, it makes up about 30-40% of their diet.)

For a long time, my birds would not accept any frozen chop, so I developed this formula to help me stay focused on nutrition without making a ton of food. After a lot of trial and error, they finally started to eat the frozen stuff, and Jingo actually prefers it now when it's still a little frozen vs completely thawed! You can use this formula whether you want a little or a lot.

My philosophy for chop is this: every bite that the bird takes should be meaningful. It should be nutritious. It should be a part of a healthy diet, not a treat. Chop can be as simple or complicated as you want. My basic goals for every chop are:

Let's take a look at these a bit more!

1 to 2 Orange Veggies. Orange veggies are a fantastic source of beta carotene, which gets converted in the body to Vitamin A. Vitamin A deficiencies can result in issues throughout the body, including the immune system, reproductive organs, respiratory system, and digestive tract. While orange veggies are not the sole source of Vitamin A, they are one of the richest, and beta carotene is one of the most readily converted and absorbed forms of it.

Use a Lot of : Carrots, Butternut Squash, Pumpkin, Sweet Potato

Use a Little of: Papaya, Mango, Cantaloupe

Preparation : Beta carotene is easier to absorb when it has been slightly cooked! Sweet potatoes should never be given raw

1 Dark Leafy Green Vegetable . Dark leafy vegetables contain so many vitamins! You can count on fiber, vitamins A, C, K, and calcium in all of them. They pack a nutritional punch that is a fantastic way to get a lot into each bite your bird takes.

Use a Lot of : Kale, Swiss chard, turnip greens, collard greens, mustard greens, dandelion greens, broccoli

Use Sparingly : Spinach, romaine

Preparation : Most can be given raw, however all greens contain oxalic acid, which binds to nutrients in the plants that we want to absorb. Oxalic acid is easily reduced by steaming, boiling, or wilting the leaves of any of these vegetables for 5 to 8 minutes. It is best to offer these lightly cooked to get the most benefit from them. Spinach is especially high in this acid so should not be fed raw often.

2 to 5 "Other" Veggies. This helps round out the chop, offering variety while still providing nutrition. An easy and inexpensive way to flesh out the chop is to add a frozen vegetable mix, which usually contains carrots, corn, peas, and green beans.

Great vegetables : Broccoli, brussel sprouts, peas, beet root, bell peppers, hot peppers, cauliflower, ginger, radish

Avoid : asparagus, comfrey, avocado, rhubarb, mushrooms

Preparation : brussel sprouts and other cabbages should be cooked before offering, but everything else can be given raw. Remove leaves from peppers.

Grains : Grains are a great source of many nutrients. Many are rich in proteins, B vitamins, minerals like iron, magnesium and selenium. Whole grains are recommended for the most nutrition. I usually buy a mix of grains and legumes.

Use a Lot of: Quinoa, millet, buckwheat, wild rice, amaranth, barley, freekah, sorghum, Farro, steel cut oats.

Use a Little of : Brown rice, white rice, quick oats

Preparation : While most can be consumed raw, or even used to help absorb some of the liquid from the vegetables, my birds have always preferred their grains cooked, so that is what I primarily do.

Legumes . Again, I usually buy a mix of grains and legumes to make this easier. Legumes includes green beans, chickpeas, black eyed peas, black beans, lentils, mung, adzuki, etc. Legumes do contain many vitamins, fiber, and are a great source of protein.

Use a lot of: green beans, chickpeas, black eyed peas, lentils, mung, adzuki,

Use only cooked well : Anasazi, Black, Fava, Kidney, Lima, Navy, Pinto, Soy

Avoid : Dry beans of any kind

Preparation : Beans should never be offered dry! They should always be soaked and cooked per the directions as they contain a toxin that needs to be neutralized with cooking.

1 Fruit, Optional. Fruits are also a great source of vitamins and fiber, but they have something that the rest on this list do not: a copious amount of sugar. In the wild, they would eat a lot of fruits, but they would need the energy sugar provided for their long flights through the tree tops. In our homes, birds do not move enough to justify feeding a lot of sugary foods. The less fruit they have to eat, the more room they will have for veggies!

Use a Lot of : Mango, blueberries, cherries, pomegranate, cranberries, papaya, cantaloupe

Use a Little of : Banana, Apple, Pear, citrus, grapes

Avoid: pits and seeds (exception: papaya and melon seeds can be added right to the mix!)

Preparation : cleaned or pits/seeds, and served raw

Spices, optional. Some spices contain components that make them a tasty and healthy addition! I don't always add spices birds only have about 350 taste buds to our 9000, but they still appreciate a little flavor!

Great Spices to Tr y: ceylon cinnamon, turmeric, ginger, chili, dill, mint, sage, parsley, cayenne, paprika, anise, fenugreek

Spices to Avoid : cassia cinnamon, nutmeg, garlic, onion, leeks, anything with added salt

Remember a little goes a long way!

Healthy Additions, optional . This is not usually part of the larger chop portion, but instead added as a topping to provide extra variety. This can be anything that doesn't freeze well, healthy seeds, or things you want to only feed in moderation on occasion.

Examples : hemp hearts, bee pollen, red palm oil, chia seed, flax seed, extra firm tofu, sprouts.

Remember that some foods are toxic no matter how they are prepared.

For quick and easy chop, check the frozen section of your local grocery store! Frozen mixed veggies are easy and cheap, making it a good base for most chop. They also are a quick and easy thing to grab if you don't have anything already made. Did you know that frozen vegetables can actually be just as, or more, nutritious than their fresh counterparts? Just make sure that they contain no added salt or seasonings.

Making chop can be just as easy as combining ingredients and serving.

1. Cook anything that requires cooking (potatoes, beans, grains, etc) and let it cool.

2. Chop anything that requires it. Anything larger than a pea, I run through the food processor and pulse to make it smaller.

As for storing, you have a few options:

Make a small batch daily, so no storage needed

Make enough for just a few days worth of food and refrigerate leftovers

Make a large batch and freeze. I like to use snack size baggies inside a larger freezer bag, but you could also put it in an ice cube tray to freeze and then put in another container or freezer bag to store. Basically, you want to store it in smaller portions that last 1-3 days so that it doesn't spoil before you can give it to your flock.

Since I give my chop to both bird and rats, I make a large batch at once. I have found that leaving the frozen components frozen (vs thawing and refreezing) helps cut down on the moisture when thawing. I do pat down veggies, especially the greens, with paper towels before mixing in. A salad spinner would also be useful.

Alternatively, you can mix in some dry oats, grains, or pasta before serving to soak up moisture.

I take out a baggy the morning before I want to serve it and leave it in the fridge to thaw. So when I finish a baggy, I immediately take out another for the next day.

Not all birds take to chop immediately. Here are some ideas to encourage eating.

Serve less, not more . Remember that birds only eat about 15 to 20% of their body weight daily. For Jingo, I usually only give him 1 to 2 tbsp of chop a day because I also want him to eat pellets. If you provide your bird with a large amount of food, they tend to pick their favorites. Offering less may encourage them to eat what they are given.

Eat with your bird . It is instinct for birds to avoid things they don't recognize as food. They learn safe foods from their flock, and in our homes, you are part of the flock! If they see you eat it, it shows them that it is edible and safe. You can also even try just sitting next to them while they eat, as eating is a flock activity.

Vary the presentation . Sometimes they don't like the way things are cut, or the bowl, or the temperature. Try offering it warm, or cold. Try cutting up things in different ways - for example, carrots can be diced, cut into coins, or sticks. Sometimes a new shape will encourage them to eat. Try a plate vs a bowl. Some birds really like to eat veggies on a plate on the cage floor, while others prefer a bowl at the top of their cage! Eventually you will find a willing combination!

Try not letting ingredients touch . Some birds prefer that their food is not all mixed together and would prefer that their carrots and peas don't touch! Try offering a plate with things dividing vs mixed together.

Offer first thing in the morning . Birds tend to be hungriest when they first wake up. Try offering chop as the first meal of the day!

Let them "steal" it off your plate . Do you have a bird that won't eat anything given to them, but will eat anything you are eating? This trick works on Jingo every time! I let him think he is stealing something tasty off my plate, and he will eat it everytime! Stolen food must taste better.

Mix in favorite foods . While they will likely pick out their favorites first, veggies tend to stick to each other in a chop and they may accidentally fall in love with whatever is attached to their favorite food! If nothing else, it makes a positive association that can help bridge the gap.

Make bird bread . You can use a pre-made mix like Harrison's to add veggies to, or make one from scratch using low glycemic flours. Add in veggies and your bird ingests the veggies and hopefully gets a taste for them! This has worked well for me with pellets as well.

Make veggies fun . Put them in a foraging toy, hang them up on a skewer, or weave them through the cage bars!

Try smoothies . Some birds love nothing more than to drink down a tasty smoothie! Take your chop and blend it into a drink and see if they will eat it that way. You can also make it into a puree (think baby food consistency) and feed it on a spoon for a nutritional bonding session,

It will be messy . No matter if they love or loathe chop, it will be messy. This is also natural. One of the things parrots do in the wild is help things in the top of the trees make it to the ground. This feeds the tree itself, as well as insects and animals that can't reach them. It is an important part of the jungle, but unfortunately the behavior comes inside with them!

Patience . It will take time for some birds. Keep offering! If you stop offering, there is no chance for your bird to accept it.

If you cannot get your bird to eat fresh veggies, or you simply have no time for a fresh version, another option would be a dehydrated or freeze dried vegetable mix , either as is or re-hydrated. Re-hydrated would be best simply because pellets and seeds are already so dry. Also, check the label and offer only those that do not contain sugars, salt, onions, oils, or Sulfur Dioxide.

Sprouts are another alternative. Many birds seem to really go for sprouts because they are seed like. Sprouts are super healthy and really easy to make! Store bought sprouts are not recommended as they have a greater chance for spoiling. They can make up most of the fresh food part of your bird's diet.

Cook 'n' serve mixes can also be a good supplement if your bird won't eat veggies. I have found good luck with Higgins Worldly Cuisines, Volkman, and Avian Organics mixes, and usually I can sneak in a few extra veggies without them noticing!

What does your chop usually look like? I'd love to see it or your birds enjoying their veggies! Feel free to tag me @LilMonstersBirdToys to show me your #veggiemonster!


Lancaster Farm Fresh CSA Recipe Group

I am health conscious, green fruits, vegetable juices and salad are my preference. I like your recipe, I would try.

Wow, this looks so delish! Glad I found this blog! Does your CSA deliver to Fairmount in Philadelphia? I am currently with Delaware Valley Farm Share but love seeing all the CSA options.
x
Ps. I am currenly hosting a CSA & Farmers Market Link Up, a place to show off your farm fresh haul and share the delicious recipes that come from them. I would love for you to stop by and share this recipe! (http://www.lightandsweetblog.com/2013/07/grilled-peach-salsa-csa-link-up.html)

Yummy green bean recipe! Any good turnip recipes? I've mashed them, added them to soups and now. I'm at a loss. please help! :)

Oh really good information.. nice blog..
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